Volcanoes in Iceland
Iceland has a high concentration of active volcanoes due to its location on the mid-Atlantic Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary between the North American plate and the European one. This rift can be seen in Iceland at the National park of Thingvellir where tourists can walk along it.
There are also guided volcano tours viable as well as hore riding tours trough the ancient lava fields. Iceland now has 30 active volcanic systems, of which 13 have erupted since the settlement of Iceland in AD 874.
The most fatal volcanic eruption of Iceland's history was the so-called Skaftáreldar (fires of Skaftá) in 1783-84. The eruption was in the crater row Lakagígar (craters of Laki) south-east of Vatnajökull glacier which is Europe's largest glacier. Roughly a quarter of the Icelandic nation died because of the eruption. Most died not because of the lava flow or other direct effects of the eruption, but from indirect effects, including changes in climate and illnesses in livestock in the following years caused by the ash and poisonous gases from the eruption. The 1783 eruption in Lakagígar is thought to have erupted the largest quantity of lava from a single eruption in historic times.
The more recent eruption under Eyjafjallajökull ("glacier of Eyjafjöll") in 2010 was notable because the volcanic ash plume disrupted air travel in northern Europe for several weeks; however this volcano is minor in Icelandic terms. In the past, eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull have been followed by eruption of the larger volcano Katla, but after the 2010 eruption no signs of an imminent eruption of Katla were seen.
The Volcano Hekla
Hekla, located in the south of Iceland amidst the Fjallabak mountain range, is one of the most active volcanoes in Iceland.In holding up its reputation as one of the most active volcanoes in Iceland, Hekla has seen over 20 eruptions since 874, being referred to as the "Gateway to Hell,” dating back to the Middle Ages.